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p ro j e ct 1 5

Rapid response teams have to deal with

unpredictableRF conditions, sketchy spectrum

availability, and system incompatibility.

Collapsed buildings and damaged subway

tunnels degrade signal quality inside.

Power outages affecting cellular base stations

are common after earthquakes and weather


Ubiquitous smartphones with IEEE 802.11

adapters and GPS localization provide a





communication in difficult environments.

Smartphones with IEEE 802.11 adapters

configured in ad-hoc mode can form a wireless

network that does not need any infrastructure

to communicate end-to-end using multi-hop

routes. Still, TCP/IP protocols only work if

there is a continuously available path between

endpoints. With intermittent connectivity,

traditional IP MANET routing and transport

protocols inevitably fail. The solution is to use

Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) techniques

that can tolerate intermittent lack of end-to-end

connectivity by storing and carrying messages.

This project develops DTN protocols for rapid

response applications that has 802.11 ad-hoc

networks self-organize and deliver packets

end-to-end when the network topology is

dynamic from node mobility and sporadic link

availability. The protocols rely on cognitive

networking techniques. Channel allocation is

aware of availability from primary users (access

points), and usage policies in order to prevent

interference and to satisfy message quality

of service. Message forwarding is scheduled

based on contextual information derived

from the user’s mission plan and resource

availability. Conversely, the mission plan and

node trajectory of some nodes is adjusted to

serve communication demands using message


These technologies will improve the effectiveness

of communications for emergency response and

for other ad-hoc scenarios using readily available

smartphones when circumstances prohibit use

of cellular or specialized government radio


Smartphone Cognitive Networking for Rapid Response

Ionut Cardei, PI

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